Anatomy of the emanating elements in general

In this item all features are included which can potentially apply for emanating hyphae as well as for rhizomorphs. Those which can mainly best be observed on emanating hyphae or apply exclusively for emanating hyphae, are considered in "Anatomy of emanating hyphae"; those which can best be observed or apply to rhizomorphs only, are included in "Anatomy of rhizomorphs".

Mantle preparations should be done according to the descriptions published by Agerer (1991): Methods in Microbiology 23: 25-73. The mantle pieces should be oriented with the outer side up in order to visualize the emanating elements unobscured by mantle layers. With some experience it is easy to distinguish between inner mantle and outer mantle surface. Hints for an outer mantle surface are a convex side or/and pseudoparenchymatous structure or/and soil particles or/and crystals or/and emanating elements or/and dark cell walls. Hints for an inner mantle surface: concave side or/and plectenchymatous structure or/and root cell wall remnants (A)