Anatomy of emanating hyphae

Mantle preparations should be doneaccording to the descriptions published by Agerer (1991): Methods in Microbiology 23: 25-73. The mantle pieces should be oriented with the outer side up in order to visualize the emanating hyphae unobscured by mantle layers. With some experience it is easy to distinguish between inner mantle and outer mantle surface. Hints for an outer mantle surface are a convex side or/and pseudoparenchymatous structure or/and soil particles or/and crystals or/and emanating elements or/and dark cell walls. Hints for an inner mantle surface: concave side or/and plectenchymatous structure or/and root cell wall remnants (A).

Emanating hyphae must have a connection to the mantle cells in order to ensure that these hyphae do really belong to the ectomycorrhiza under consideration. Very often, hyphae of foreign fungi - coloured or colourless - can grow on the mantle surface or between the emanating hyphae in question (B–C).